Healthcare Data Breach Statistics

The HIPAA Journal has compiled healthcare data breach statistics from October 2009, when the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Office for Civil Rights (OCR) first started publishing summaries of healthcare data breaches on its website.

HIPAA Compliance Checklist To Avoid HIPAA BreachesThis page is regularly updated to reflect the latest healthcare data breach statistics. These statistics and graphs were last updated on Jul 2, 2024. Check back regularly to get the latest healthcare data breach statistics and healthcare data breach trends. You can also receive a free copy of our HIPAA Compliance Checklist to understand your organization’s responsibilities under HIPAA.

Table of Contents

Trends In Healthcare Data Breach Statistics

Our healthcare data breach statistics clearly show there has been an upward trend in data breaches over the past 14 years, with 2021 seeing more data breaches reported than any other year since records first started being published by OCR.

Data breaches increased once again in 2022, with OCR receiving reports of 720 data breaches of 500 or more records. There was no letup in cyberattacks on healthcare organizations in 2023, which set two new records – The most reported data breaches and the most breached records. In 2023, 725 data breaches were reported to OCR and across those breaches, more than 133 million records were exposed or impermissibly disclosed.

The healthcare data breach statistics below only include data breaches of 500 or more records that have been reported to OCR, as while HIPAA requires all data breaches to be reported regardless of size, OCR does not publish details of smaller data breaches. The breaches included in the statistics and graphs below include closed cases and breaches that are still being investigated by OCR for potential HIPAA violations.

Avoid HIPAA Breaches with HIPAA Compliance SoftwareAvoid HIPAA Breaches with HIPAA Compliance SoftwareBetween October 21, 2009, when OCR first started publishing summaries of data breach reports on its “Wall of Shame”, and and December 31, 2023, 5,887 large healthcare data breaches have been reported. On January 22, 2023, the breach portal listed 857 data breaches as still; under investigation. This time last year there were 882 breaches listed as under investigation, which shows OCR has made little progress in clearing its backlog of investigations – something that is unlikely to change given the chronic lack of funding for the department.

There have been notable changes over the years in the main causes of breaches. The loss/theft of healthcare records and electronic protected health information dominated the breach reports between 2009 and 2015. The move to digital record keeping, more accurate tracking of electronic devices, and more widespread adoption of data encryption have been key in reducing these data breaches. There has also been a downward trend in improper disposal incidents and unauthorized access/disclosure incidents, but data breaches continue to increase due to a massive increase in hacking incidents and ransomware attacks. In 2023, OCR reported a 239% increase in hacking-related data breaches between January 1, 2018, and September 30, 2023, and a 278% increase in ransomware attacks over the same period. In 2019, hacking accounted for 49% of all reported breaches. In 2023, 79.7% of data breaches were due to hacking incidents.

It is not just the number of data breaches that are increasing as the breaches are becoming more severe. 2021 was a bad year for data breaches with 45.9 million records breached, and 2022 was worse with 51.9 million records breached, but 2023 smashed all previous records with an astonishing 133 million records exposed, stolen, or otherwise impermissibly disclosed. The huge total for 2023 includes 26 data breaches of more than 1 million records and four breaches of more than 8 million records. The largest data breach of the year affected 11,270,000 individuals – the second-largest healthcare data breach of all time.

The breach data is updated at least monthly, with the previous month’s figures typically added around the 21st of each month so check back frequently to see the emerging trends for the current year.

Healthcare Data Breaches by Year

Between 2009 and 2023, 5,887 healthcare data breaches of 500 or more records were reported to OCR. Those breaches have resulted in the exposure or impermissible disclosure of 519,935,970 healthcare records. That equates to more than 1.5x the population of the United States. In 2018, healthcare data breaches of 500 or more records were being reported at a rate of around 1 per day. Fast forward 5 years and the rate has more than doubled. In 2023, an average of 1.99 healthcare data breaches of 500 or more records were reported each day, and on average, 364,571 healthcare records were breached every day.

healthcare data breaches of 500 or more records 2009-2024healthcare data breaches of 500 or more records 2009-2024

Healthcare Records Exposed by Year

Individuals affected by healthcare security breaches 2009-2024Individuals affected by healthcare security breaches 2009-2024

There has been a general upward trend in the number of records exposed each year, with a massive increase in 2015. Until 2023, 2015 was the worst year in history for breached healthcare records with more than 112 million records exposed or impermissibly disclosed. 2015 was particularly bad due to three massive data breaches at health plans: Anthem Inc, Premera Blue Cross, and Excellus. The Anthem breach affected 78.8 million of its members, with the Premera Blue Cross and Excellus data breaches both affecting around 10 million+ individuals.

Average/Median Healthcare Data Breach Size by Year

Healthcare data breaches - average breach size 2009-2024Healthcare data breaches - average breach size 2009-2024

Healthcare data breaches - median breach size 2009-2024Healthcare data breaches - median breach size 2009-2024

Largest Healthcare Data Breaches (2009 – 2024)

The largest healthcare data breach occurred at Anthem Inc. in 2015 and involved the records of 78.8 million individuals. A data breach as large as that seemed unlikely to occur again, but this year is likely to see that record smashed. A ransomware attack on Change Healthcare has resulted in the theft of the protected health information of up to 1 in 3 Americans. The ransomware attack occurred on February 21, 2024; however, the total number of affected individuals has yet to be confirmed. It will likely be several more weeks, and potentially months before the number of affected individuals is confirmed.  You can read more about this devastating cyberattack in this article.

Rank Name of Covered Entity Year Covered Entity Type Individuals Affected Type of Breach
1 Anthem Inc. 2015 Health Plan 78,800,000 Hacking/IT Incident
2 American Medical Collection Agency 2019 Business Associate 26,059,725 Hacking/IT Incident
3 Kaiser Foundation Health Plan, Inc. 2024 Health Plan 13,400,000 Unauthorized disclosure due to website tracking technologies
4 HCA Healthcare 2023 Business Associate 11,270,000 Hacking/IT Incident
5 Premera Blue Cross 2015 Health Plan 11,000,000 Hacking/IT Incident
6 Excellus Health Plan, Inc. 2015 Health Plan 10,000,000 Hacking/IT Incident
7 Perry Johnson & Associates (PJ&A) 2023 Business Associate 8,952,212* Ransomware attack
8 Managed Care of North America (MCNA Dental) 2023 Business Associate 8,861,076 Ransomware attack
9 Welltok 2023 Business associate 8,493,379 Hacking Incident (MoveIT)
10 Delta Dental of California 2023 Healthcare Provider 6,928,932 Hacking Incident (MoveIT)
11 PharMerica 2023 Healthcare Provider 5,815,591 Ransomware attack
12 Science Applications International Corporation 2011 Business Associate 4,900,000 Loss
13 University of California, Los Angeles Health 2015 Healthcare Provider 4,500,000 Hacking/IT Incident
14 Community Health Systems Professional Services Corporations 2014 Business Associate 4,500,000 Hacking/IT Incident
15 HealthEC 2023 Business Associate 4,452,782 Hacking/IT Incident
16 Reventics 2023 Business Associate 4,212,823 Hacking/IT Incident
17 OneTouchPoint 2022 Business Associate 4,112,892 Ransomware attack
18 Colorado Department of Health Care Policy & Financing 2023 Health Plan 4,091,794 MOVEit Transfer hacking incident
19 Advocate Health and Hospitals Corporation, d/b/a Advocate Medical Group 2013 Healthcare Provider 4,029,530 Theft
20 Concentra Health Services, Inc. 2024 Healthcare Provider 3,998,162 Hacking/IT Incident
21 Medical Informatics Engineering 2015 Business Associate 3,900,000 Hacking/IT Incident
22 Eye Care Leaders 2022 Business Associate 3,649,470 Hacking/IT Incident
23 Banner Health 2016 Healthcare Provider 3,620,000 Hacking/IT Incident
24 Florida Healthy Kids Corporation 2021 Health Plan 3,500,000 Hacking/IT Incident
25 Newkirk Products, Inc. 2016 Business Associate 3,466,120 Hacking/IT Incident
26 Regal Medical Group (including Lakeside Medical Organization, A Medical Group, ADOC Acquisition Co., A Medical Group Inc. & Greater Covina Medical Group Inc.) 2023 Healthcare Provider 3,388,856 Ransomware attack
27 Trinity Health 2020 Business Associate 3,320,726 Hacking/IT Incident
28 20/20 Eye Care Network, Inc 2021 Business Associate 3,253,822 Hacking/IT Incident
29 CareSource 2023 Business Associate 3,180,537 MOVEit Transfer hacking incident
30 Cerebral, Inc. 2023 Business Associate 3,179,835 Impermissible Disclosure (website tracking code)
31 NationsBenefits Holdings, LLC 2023 Business Associate 3,037,303 Hacking Incident (Fortra GoAnywhere MFT)
32 Advocate Aurora Health 2022 Healthcare Provider 3,000,000 Impermissible Disclosure (website tracking code)
33 Dominion Dental Services, Inc., Dominion National Insurance Company, and Dominion Dental Services USA, Inc. 2019 Health Plan 2,964,778 Hacking/IT Incident
34 A&A Services d/b/a Sav-Rx 2024 Business Associate 2,812,336 Hacking/IT Incident
35 Maximus, Inc. 2023 Business Associate 2,781,617 MOVEit Transfer hacking incident
36 AccuDoc Solutions, Inc. 2018 Business Associate 2,652,537 Hacking/IT Incident
37 Harvard Pilgrim Health Care 2023 Health Plan 2,624,191 Hacking/IT Incident
38 WebTPA Employer Services, LLC (“WebTPA”) 2024 Healthcare Provider 2,518,533 Hacking/IT Incident
39 Enzo Clinical Labs, Inc. 2023 Healthcare Provider 2,470,000 Ransomware Attack
40 Florida Health Sciences Center, Inc. dba Tampa General Hospital 2023 Healthcare Provider 2,430,920 Hacking Incident
41 Forefront Dermatology, S.C. 2021 Healthcare Provider 2,413,553 Hacking/IT Incident
42 Integris Health 2024 Healthcare Provider 2,385,646 Hacking/IT Incident
43 Postmeds Inc. 2023 Business Associate 2,364,359 Hacking/IT Incident
44 Medical Management Resource Group, L.L.C. 2024 Business Associate 2,350,236 Hacking/IT Incident
45 Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services 2023 Health Plan 2,342,357 Hacking/IT Incident
46 Connexin Software 2022 Business Associate 2,216,365 Hacking/IT Incident
47 21st Century Oncology 2016 Healthcare Provider 2,213,597 Hacking/IT Incident
48 Shields Healthcare Group 2022 Business Associate 2,000,000 Unauthorized Access/Disclosure
49 Xerox State Healthcare, LLC 2014 Business Associate 2,000,000 Unauthorized Access/Disclosure
50 Arietis Health 2023 Business Associate 1,975,066 MOVEit Transfer hacking incident
51 Professional Finance Company 2022 Business Associate 1,918,941 Ransomware attack
52 IBM 2011 Business Associate 1,900,000 Unknown
53 Apria Healthcare 2023 Healthcare Provider 1,868,831 Hacking Incident
54 Pension Benefit Information 2023 Business Associate 1,866,694 MOVEit Transfer hacking incident
55 Performance Health Technology 2023 Business Associate 1,752,076 Hacking/IT Incident
56 Dental Care Alliance, LLC 2021 Business Associate 1,723,375 Hacking/IT Incident
57 GRM Information Management Services 2011 Business Associate 1,700,000 Theft
58 NEC Networks, LLC d/b/a CaptureRx 2021 Business Associate 1,656,569 Hacking/IT Incident
59 Baptist Medical Center and Resolute Health Hospital 2022 Healthcare Provider 1,608,549 Hacking/IT Incident
60 Inmediata Health Group, Corp. 2019 Healthcare Clearing House 1,565,338 Unauthorized Access/Disclosure
61 Eskenazi Health 2021 Healthcare Provider 1,515,918 Hacking/IT Incident
62 Community Health Network 2022 Healthcare Provider 1,500,000 Impermissible Disclosure (website tracking code)

* PJ&A reported the data breach to OCR as affecting 8,952,212 individuals but some of its covered entity clients reported the data breach themselves. In total, more than 13 million individuals are known to have been affected by the PJ&A data breach.

These figures are calculated based on the reporting entity. When a data breach occurs at a business associate, it may be reported by the business associate, or by each affected HIPAA-covered entity. For instance, in 2022, the electronic health record provider, Eye Care Leaders, suffered a ransomware attack. Each covered entity reported the breach separately. The HIPAA Journal has tracked the breach reports and at least 39 HIPAA-covered entities were affected, and the records of more than 3.09 million individuals were exposed. Similarly, a major data breach occurred at American Medical Collection Agency in 2019 that was reported by each covered entity, rather than AMCA. That breach affected more than 25 million individuals. Even when business associates of HIPAA-covered entities self-report the data breaches, some of their covered entity clients choose to report the breach themselves. As a result, business associate data breaches tend to be under-represented in analyses of healthcare data breaches.

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Causes of Healthcare Data Breaches

causes of healthcare security breaches 2009-2024causes of healthcare security breaches 2009-2024

Healthcare Hacking Incidents by Year

Our healthcare data breach statistics show hacking is now the leading cause of healthcare data breaches, although it should be noted that healthcare organizations are now much better at detecting hacking incidents than they were in 2010. The low number of hacking/IT incidents in the earlier years could be partially due to the failure to detect hacking incidents and malware infections although it is clear that there has been a massive increase in attacks in recent years. Many of the hacking incidents between 2014 and 2018 occurred many months – and in some cases years – before they were detected.

2024 hacking incidents in healthcare2024 hacking incidents in healthcare

healthcare hacking incidents 2009-2024 - records compromisedhealthcare hacking incidents 2009-2024 - records compromised

Unauthorized Access/Disclosures by Year

As with hacking, healthcare organizations are getting better at detecting insider breaches and reporting those breaches to the Office for Civil Rights, although as the chart below shows, the severity of these breaches has increased significantly in recent years. These incidents include employee errors, negligence, snooping on medical records, and data theft by malicious insiders. Better HIPAA and security awareness training along with the use of technologies for monitoring access to medical records are helping to reduce these data breaches.

Unauthorized access/disclosure incidents in healthcare 2009-2024Unauthorized access/disclosure incidents in healthcare 2009-2024

Unauthorized access/disclosure incidents in healthcare 2009-2024 - records compromisedUnauthorized access/disclosure incidents in healthcare 2009-2024 - records compromised

Loss/Theft of PHI and Unencrypted ePHI by Year

Our healthcare data breach statistics show that HIPAA-covered entities and business associates have gotten significantly better at protecting healthcare records with administrative, physical, and technical controls such as encryption, although unencrypted laptops and other electronic devices are still being left unsecured in vehicles and locations accessible by the public. Many of these theft/loss incidents involve paper records, which can equally result in the exposure of large amounts of patient information.

Loss and theft incidents in healthcare 2009-2024Loss and theft incidents in healthcare 2009-2024

healthcare loss/theft incidents 2009-2024 - records compromisedhealthcare loss/theft incidents 2009-2024 - records compromised

Improper Disposal of PHI/ePHI by Year

HIPAA requires healthcare data, whether in physical or electronic form, to be permanently destroyed when no longer required. The improper disposal of PHI is a relatively infrequent breach cause and typically involves paper records that have not been sent for shredding or have been abandoned.

Improper disposal incidents in healthcare 2009-2024Improper disposal incidents in healthcare 2009-2024

healthcare improper disposal incidents 2009-2024 - records compromisedhealthcare improper disposal incidents 2009-2024 - records compromised

Healthcare Data Breaches by HIPAA-Regulated Entity Type

The table below shows the raw data from OCR of the data breaches by the entity reporting the breaches; however, this data does not tell the whole story, as data breaches occurring at business associates may be reported by the business associate or each affected covered entity or a combination of the two. Many online reports that provide healthcare data breach statistics fail to accurately reflect where many data breaches are occurring.

Healthcare Data Breaches: Reporting Entity (2009 – 2024)

Year Healthcare Provider Health Plan Business Associate Healthcare Clearinghouse Total
2009 14 1 3 0 18
2010 134 21 44 0 199
2011 135 19 45 1 200
2012 154 23 40 1 218
2013 191 20 64 2 277
2014 200 40 74 0 314
2015 195 61 14 0 270
2016 256 51 22 0 329
2017 285 52 21 0 358
2018 274 53 42 0 369
2019 397 59 54 2 512
2020 515 72 74 2 663
2021 516 104 93 2 715
2022 504 87 129 0 720
2023 463 103 173 2 741
2024 232 44 55 2 333
Total 4,465 810 947 14 6,236

The graphs below paint a more accurate picture of where healthcare data breaches are occurring, rather than the entities that have reported the data breaches, and clearly show the extent to which business associate data breaches have increased in recent years. In 2023, more than 93 million healthcare records were exposed or stolen in data breaches at business associates compared to 34.9 million records in breaches at healthcare providers. The charts below show data breaches by reporting entity.

data breaches at HIPAA-regulated entities in 2024data breaches at HIPAA-regulated entities in 2024

Records breached at HIPAA-regulated entities in 2024Records breached at HIPAA-regulated entities in 2024

These data highlight the importance of securing the supply chain, conducting due diligence on vendors before their products and services are used, and monitoring existing vendors for HIPAA Security Rule compliance and cybersecurity. In 2023, one of the biggest challenges in healthcare cybersecurity is securing the supply chain.

OCR Settlements and Fines for HIPAA Violations

The penalties for HIPAA violations can be severe. Multi-million-dollar fines are possible when violations have been allowed to persist for several years or when there is systemic non-compliance with the HIPAA Rules, making HIPAA compliance financially as well as ethically important.

The penalty structure for HIPAA violations is detailed in the infographic below. These figures are adjusted annually for inflation. The current penalty amounts can be found here.

Penalties for HIPAA violationsPenalties for HIPAA violations

OCR Settlements and Fines Over the Years

Further information on HIPAA fines and settlements can be viewed on our HIPAA violation fines page, which details all HIPAA violation fines imposed by OCR since 2008. As the graph below shows, HIPAA enforcement activity has steadily increased over the past 14 years, with 2022 being a record year, with 22 penalties imposed. The major rise in HIPAA violation penalties in 2020 was largely due to a new enforcement initiative by OCR targeting non-compliance with the HIPAA Right of Access – the right of patients to access and obtain a copy of their healthcare data. 11 settlements were reached with healthcare providers in 2020 to resolve cases where patients were not given timely access to their medical records, and in 2021 all but two of the 14 penalties were for HIPAA Right of Access violations. From September 2019 to December 2023, 46 penalties have been imposed to resolve HIPAA Right of Access violations.

OCR Fines for HIPAA Violations 2008-2024OCR Fines for HIPAA Violations 2008-2024

How Much Has OCR Fined HIPAA Covered Entities and Business Associates?

In addition to an increase in fines and settlements, penalty amounts increased considerably between 2015 and 2018. In 2018, the largest ever financial penalty for HIPAA violations was paid by Anthem Inc. to resolve potential violations of the HIPAA Security Rule that were discovered by OCR during the investigation of its 78.8 million record data breach in 2015. Anthem paid $16 million to settle the case. In 2020, Premera Blue Cross settled potential violations of the HIPAA Rules and paid a $6,850,000 penalty to resolve its 2015 data breach of the PHI of almost 10.5 million individuals, and in 2021 a $5,000,000 settlement was agreed upon with Excellus Health Plan to resolve HIPAA violations identified that contributed to its 2015 data breach of the PHI of almost 9.4 million individuals.

While large financial penalties are still imposed to resolve HIPAA violations, the trend has been for smaller penalties to be issued in recent years, with those penalties imposed on healthcare organizations of all sizes. It is no longer the case where smaller healthcare organizations escape HIPAA fines. In 2022, 55% of the financial penalties imposed by OCR were on small medical practices.

The fall in revenues from OCR’s enforcement activities in recent years is due to OCR reassessing the language of the HITECH Act, which called for penalties for HIPAA violations to be increased. OCR determined that the language of the HITECH Act had been misinterpreted at the time and reduced the penalty caps in three of the four penalty tiers. OCR is now petitioning Congress to increase the penalty caps to increase the deterrent effect.

Average OCR HIPAA penalties by yearAverage OCR HIPAA penalties by year

Median OCR HIPAA penalties by yearMedian OCR HIPAA penalties by year

It was expected that 2018 would see fewer fines for HIPAA-covered entities than in the past two years due to HHS budget cuts, but that did not prove not to be the case. 2018 was a record-breaking year for HIPAA fines and settlements, beating the previous record of $23,505,300 set in 2016 by 22%. OCR received payments totaling $28,683,400 in 2018 from HIPAA-covered entities and business associates who had violated HIPAA Rules and 2020 saw a major increase in enforcement activity with 19 settlements. The number of financial penalties was reduced in 2021; however, 2022 has seen penalties increase, with 22 penalties announced by OCR, more than in any other year to date. There was a reduction in enforcement actions in 2023, although there was an increase in penalty amounts. OCR had been concentrating on HIPAA Right of Access violations, for which the penalties are generally relatively low as only one HIPAA provision is typically violated. In 2023, OCR imposed more files for HIPAA Security Rule violations, where the entity concerned violated multiple aspects of the Security Rule, hence the higher penalties.

OCR Penalties for HIPAA Violations (2008 – 2024)

Year Covered Entity Amount Penalty Type
2024 Heritage Valley Health System $950,000 Settlement
2024 Essex Residential Care (Hackensack Meridian Health, West Caldwell Care Center) $100,000 Civil Monetary Penalty
2024 Phoenix Healthcare $35,000 Settlement
2024 Green Ridge Behavioral Health $40,000 Settlement
2024 Montefiore Medical Center $4,750,000 Settlement
2023 Optum Medical Care of New Jersey $160,000 Settlement
2023 Lafourche Medical Group $480,000 Settlement
2023 St. Joseph’s Medical Center $80,000 Settlement
2023 Doctors’ Management Services $100,000 Settlement
2023 L.A. Care Health Plan $1,300,000 Settlement
2023 UnitedHealthcare $80,000 Settlement
2023 iHealth Solutions (dba Advantum Health) $75,000 Settlement
2023 Yakima Valley Memorial Hospital $240,000 Settlement
2023 Manasa Health Center, LLC $30,000 Settlement
2023 MedEvolve Inc. $350,000 Settlement
2023 David Mente, MA, LPC $15,000 Settlement
2023 Banner Health $1,250,000 Settlement
2023 Life Hope Labs, LLC $16,500 Settlement
2022 Health Specialists of Central Florida Inc $20,000 Settlement
2022 New Vision Dental $23,000 Settlement
2022 Great Expressions Dental Center of Georgia, P.C. $80,000 Settlement
2022 Family Dental Care, P.C. $30,000 Settlement
2022 B. Steven L. Hardy, D.D.S., LTD, dba Paradise Family Dental $25,000 Settlement
2022 New England Dermatology and Laser Center $300,640 Settlement
2022 ACPM Podiatry $100,000 Civil Monetary Penalty
2022 Memorial Hermann Health System $240,000 Settlement
2022 Southwest Surgical Associates $65,000 Settlement
2022 Hillcrest Nursing and Rehabilitation $55,000 Settlement
2022 MelroseWakefield Healthcare $55,000 Settlement
2022 Erie County Medical Center Corporation $50,000 Settlement
2022 Fallbrook Family Health Center $30,000 Settlement
2022 Associated Retina Specialists $22,500 Settlement
2022 Coastal Ear, Nose, and Throat $20,000 Settlement
2022 Lawrence Bell, Jr. D.D.S $5,000 Settlement
2022 Danbury Psychiatric Consultants $3,500 Settlement
2022 Oklahoma State University – Center for Health Sciences $875,000 Settlement
2022 Dr. Brockley $30,000 Settlement
2022 Jacob & Associates $28,000 Settlement
2022 Dr. U. Phillip Igbinadolor, D.M.D. & Associates, P.A. $50,000 Civil Monetary Penalty
2022 Northcutt Dental-Fairhope $62,500 Settlement
2021 Advanced Spine & Pain Management $32,150 Settlement
2021 Denver Retina Center $30,000 Settlement
2021 Dr. Robert Glaser $100,000 Civil Monetary Penalty
2021 Rainrock Treatment Center LLC (dba monte Nido Rainrock) $160,000 Settlement
2021 Wake Health Medical Group $10,000 Settlement
2021 Children’s Hospital & Medical Center $80,000 Settlement
2021 The Diabetes, Endocrinology & Lipidology Center, Inc. $5,000 Settlement
2021 AEON Clinical Laboratories (Peachstate) $25,000 Settlement
2021 Village Plastic Surgery $30,000 Settlement
2021 Arbour Hospital $65,000 Settlement
2021 Sharpe Healthcare $70,000 Settlement
2021 Renown Health $75,000 Settlement
2021 Excellus Health Plan $5,100,000 Settlement
2021 Banner Health $200,000 Settlement
2020 Peter Wrobel, M.D., P.C., dba Elite Primary Care $36,000 Settlement
2020 University of Cincinnati Medical Center $65,000 Settlement
2020 Dr. Rajendra Bhayani $15,000 Settlement
2020 Riverside Psychiatric Medical Group $25,000 Settlement
2020 City of New Haven, CT $202,400 Settlement
2020 Aetna $1,000,000 Settlement
2020 NY Spine $100,000 Settlement
2020 Dignity Health, dba St. Joseph’s Hospital and Medical Center $160,000 Settlement
2020 Premera Blue Cross $6,850,000 Settlement
2020 CHSPSC LLC $2,300,000 Settlement
2020 Athens Orthopedic Clinic PA $1,500,000 Settlement
2020 Housing Works, Inc. $38,000 Settlement
2020 All Inclusive Medical Services, Inc. $15,000 Settlement
2020 Beth Israel Lahey Health Behavioral Services $70,000 Settlement
2020 King MD $3,500 Settlement
2020 Wise Psychiatry, PC $10,000 Settlement
2020 Lifespan Health System Affiliated Covered Entity $1,040,000 Settlement
2020 Metropolitan Community Health Services dba Agape Health Services $25,000 Settlement
2020 Steven A. Porter, M.D $100,000 Settlement
2019 Jackson Health System $2,154,000 Civil Monetary Penalty
2019 Texas Department of Aging and Disability Services $1,600,000 Civil Monetary Penalty
2019 University of Rochester Medical Center $3,000,000 Settlement
2019 Touchstone Medical imaging $3,000,000 Settlement
2019 Sentara Hospitals $2,175,000 Settlement
2019 Medical Informatics Engineering $100,000 Settlement
2019 Korunda Medical, LLC $85,000 Settlement
2019 Bayfront Health St. Petersburg $85,000 Settlement
2019 West Georgia Ambulance $65,000 Settlement
2019 Elite Dental Associates $10,000 Settlement
2018* University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center $4,348,000 Civil Monetary Penalty
2018 Anthem Inc $16,000,000 Settlement
2018 Fresenius Medical Care North America $3,500,000 Settlement
2018 Massachusetts General Hospital $515,000 Settlement
2018 Brigham and Women’s Hospital $384,000 Settlement
2018 Boston Medical Center $100,000 Settlement
2018 Filefax, Inc. $100,000 Settlement
2017 Children’s Medical Center of Dallas $3,200,000 Civil Monetary Penalty
2017 Memorial Healthcare System $5,500,000 Settlement
2017 Cardionet $2,500,000 Settlement
2017 Memorial Hermann Health System $2,400,000 Settlement
2017 21st Century Oncology $2,300,000 Settlement
2017 MAPFRE Life Insurance Company of Puerto Rico $2,200,000 Settlement
2017 Presense Health $475,000 Settlement
2017 Metro Community Provider Network $400,000 Settlement
2017 St. Luke’s-Roosevelt Hospital Center Inc. $387,000 Settlement
2017 The Center for Children’s Digestive Health $31,000 Settlement
2016 Lincare, Inc. $239,800 Civil Monetary Penalty
2016 Advocate Health Care Network $5,550,000 Settlement
2016 Feinstein Institute for Medical Research $3,900,000 Settlement
2016 University of Mississippi Medical Center $2,750,000 Settlement
2016 Oregon Health & Science University $2,700,000 Settlement
2016 New York Presbyterian Hospital $2,200,000 Settlement
2016 St. Joseph Health $2,140,500 Settlement
2016 North Memorial Health Care of Minnesota $1,550,000 Settlement
2016 Raleigh Orthopaedic Clinic, P.A. of North Carolina $750,000 Settlement
2016 University of Massachusetts Amherst (UMass) $650,000 Settlement
2016 Catholic Health Care Services of the Archdiocese of Philadelphia $650,000 Settlement
2016 Care New England Health System $400,000 Settlement
2016 Complete P.T., Pool & Land Physical Therapy, Inc. $25,000 Settlement
2015 Triple S Management Corporation $3,500,000 Settlement
2015  Lahey Hospital and Medical Center $850,000 Settlement
2015 University of Washington Medicine $750,000 Settlement
2015 Cancer Care Group, P.C. $750,000 Settlement
2015 St. Elizabeth’s Medical Center $218,400 Settlement
2015 Cornell Prescription Pharmacy $125,000 Settlement
2014 New York and Presbyterian Hospital and Columbia University $4,800,000 Settlement
2014 Concentra Health Services $1,725,220 Settlement
2014 Parkview Health System, Inc. $800,000 Settlement
2014 QCA Health Plan, Inc., of Arkansas $250,000 Settlement
2014 Skagit County, Washington $215,000 Settlement
2014 Anchorage Community Mental Health Services $150,000 Settlement
2013 WellPoint $1,700,000 Settlement
2013 Affinity Health Plan, Inc. $1,215,780 Settlement
2013 Idaho State University $400,000 Settlement
2013 Shasta Regional Medical Center $275,000 Settlement
2013 Adult & Pediatric Dermatology, P.C. $150,000 Settlement
2012 Alaska DHSS $1,700,000 Settlement
2012 Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and Massachusetts Eye and Ear Associates, Inc. $1,500,000 Settlement
2012 Blue Cross Blue Shield of Tennessee $1,500,000 Settlement
2012 Phoenix Cardiac Surgery $100,000 Settlement
2012 The Hospice of Northern Idaho $50,000 Settlement
2011 Cignet Health of Prince George’s County $4,300,000 Civil Monetary Penalty
2011 General Hospital Corp. & Massachusetts General Physicians Organization Inc. $1,000,000 Settlement
2011 University of California at Los Angeles Health System $865,500 Settlement
2010 Rite Aid Corporation $1,000,000 Settlement
2010 Management Services Organization Washington Inc. $35,000 Settlement
2009 CVS Pharmacy Inc. $2,250,000 Settlement
2008 Providence Health & Services $100,000 Settlement

*In 2021, following an appeal, the civil monetary penalty imposed on the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center by the HHS’ Office for Civil Rights was vacated.

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State Attorneys General HIPAA Fines and Other Financial Penalties for Healthcare Organizations

State attorneys general can bring actions against HIPAA-covered entities and their business associates for violations of the HIPAA Rules. Penalties range from $100 per HIPAA violation up to a maximum of $25,000 per violation category, per year.

Only a handful of U.S. states have imposed penalties for HIPAA violations; however, that changed in 2019 when many state Attorneys General started participating in multistate actions against HIPAA-covered entities and business associates that experienced major data breaches and were found not to be in compliance with the HIPAA Rules.

The penalties detailed below have been imposed by state attorneys general for HIPAA violations and violations of state laws. It is common for penalties to be imposed solely for violations of state laws, even though there are corresponding HIPAA violations.

Attorneys General HIPAA Fines (2008 – 2024)

Year State Covered Entity Amount
2024 Washington Allure Esthetic $5,000,000
2024 California Adventist Health Hanford $10,000
2024 California Blackbaud $6,750,000
2024 California Quest Diagnostics $5,000,000
2024 New York Refuah Health Center $450,000 and an investment of $1.2 million in cybersecurity
2023 New York New York Presbyterian Hospital $300,000
2023 New York Healthplex $400,000
2023 Indiana CarePointe ENT $120,000
2023 New York U.S. Radiology Specialists Inc. $450,000
2023 Multistate (32 states and PR) Inmediata $1,400,000
2023 New York Personal Touch Holding Corp $350,000
2023 Multistate (49 states and DC) Blackbaud $49,500,000
2023 Colorado Broomfield Skilled Nursing and Rehabilitation Center $60,000 ($25,000 suspended)
2023 Indiana Schneck Medical Center $250,000
2023 California Kaiser Foundation Health Plan Foundation Inc. and Kaiser Foundation Hospitals $49,000,000
2023 California Kaiser Permanente $450,000
2023 New York Professional Business Systems Inc. dba Practicefirst Medical Management Solutions $550,000
2023 Multi-state: Oregon, New Jersey, Florida, Pennsylvania EyeMed Vision Care $2,500,000
2023 New York Heidell, Pittoni, Murphy & Bach LLP $200,000
2023 Pennsylvania & Ohio DNA Diagnostics Center $400,000
2022 Oregon & Utah Avalon Healthcare $200,000
2022 Massachusetts Aveanna Healthcare $425,000
2022 New York EyeMed Vision Care $600,000
2021 New Jersey Regional Cancer Care Associates (Regional Cancer Care Associates LLC, RCCA MSO LLC, and RCCA MD LLC) $425,000
2021 New Jersey Regional Cancer Care Associates (Regional Cancer Care Associates LLC, RCCA MSO LLC, and RCCA MD LLC) $425,000
2021 New Jersey Diamond Institute for Infertility and Menopause $495,000
2021 Multistate American Medical Collection Agency $21 million (suspended)
2020 Multistate CHSPSC LLC $5,000,000
2020 Multistate Anthem Inc. $39.5 million
2020 California Anthem Inc. $8.7 million
2019 Multistate Premera Blue Cross $10,000,000
2019 Multistate Medical Informatics Engineering $900,000
2019 California Aetna $935,000
2018 Massachusetts McLean Hospital $75,000
2018 New Jersey EmblemHealth $100,000
2018 New Jersey Best Transcription Medical $200,000
2018 Connecticut Aetna $99,959
2018 New Jersey Aetna $365,211.59
2018 District of Columbia Aetna $175,000
2018 Massachusetts UMass Memorial Medical Group / UMass Memorial Medical Center $230,000
2018 New York Arc of Erie County $200,000
2018 New Jersey Virtua Medical Group $417,816
2018 New York EmblemHealth $575,000
2018 New York Aetna $1,150,000
2017 California Cottage Health System $2,000,000
2017 Massachusetts Multi-State Billing Services $100,000
2017 New Jersey Horizon Healthcare Services Inc., $1,100,000
2017 Vermont SAManage USA, Inc. $264,000
2017 New York CoPilot Provider Support Services, Inc $130,000
2015 New York University of Rochester Medical Center $15,000
2015 Connecticut Hartford Hospital/ EMC Corporation $90,000
2014 Massachusetts Women & Infants Hospital of Rhode Island $150,000
2014 Massachusetts Boston Children’s Hospital $40,000
2014 Massachusetts Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center $100,000
2013 Massachusetts Goldthwait Associates $140,000
2012 MN Accretive Health $2,500,000
2012 Massachusetts South Shore Hospital $750,000
2011 Vermont Health Net Inc. $55,000
2011 Indiana WellPoint Inc. $100,000
2010 Connecticut Health Net Inc. $250,000

Click for further information HIPAA enforcement by State Attorneys General.

Federal Trade Commission Fines and Penalties 2023

In 2009, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) published a new rule that required vendors of personal health records and related entities to notify consumers following a breach involving unsecured information. The FTC Health Breach Notification Rule applies only to identifying health information that is not covered by HIPAA. The Rule does not apply to HIPAA-covered entities or business associates, which have reporting requirements per the HIPAA Breach Notification Rule.

The FTC issued a policy update in 2021 stating its intention to start actively enforcing compliance. Prior to 2023, no financial penalties had been imposed for breach notification failures but that changed in February 2023.

Entity Company Type Penalty Type Amount Reason
Cerebral Mental health telehealth company Settlement $7.1 million ($10 million CMP, $8 million suspended. $5.1 million in refunds to customers) Impermissible disclosure of personal and health information to third parties such as Google and Snapchat
Monument Alcohol addiction treatment company Settlement $2.5 million (suspended) Impermissible disclosure of personal and health information to third parties such as Google.
Easy Healthcare (Premom) Fertility tracking health app provider Settlement $200,000 Impermissible disclosure of personal and health information to third parties such as Google and Facebook. Failure to issue timely notifications
BetterHelp Inc. Online counseling service provider Settlement $7,800,000 Impermissible disclosure of personal and health information to third parties such as Google and Facebook
GoodRx Holdings Inc. Telemedicine platform provider Settlement $1,500,000 Failure to notify consumers about the impermissible disclosure of personal and health information to third parties such as Google and Facebook

Healthcare Data Breach Statistics FAQs

How does the number of data breaches in the healthcare sector compare with other sectors?

The number of data breaches in the healthcare sector compares poorly with other sectors. An analysis of data breaches recorded on the Privacy Rights database between 2015 and 2022 showed that 32% of all recorded data breaches were in the healthcare sector – almost double the number recorded in the financial and manufacturing sectors.

Top 5 Sector by Cost of Cybersecurity Breaches HIPAAJournal.comTop 5 Sector by Cost of Cybersecurity Breaches

Why are there so many more data breaches in the healthcare sector than in other sectors?

There are so many more data breaches in the healthcare sector than in other sectors because healthcare data is more valuable on the black market than any other type of data. This is because it takes longer for healthcare fraud to be discovered and stolen data can be used for longer compared to (for example) a stolen credit card which can be stopped as soon as the breach is discovered.

It is also the case that organizations in the healthcare sector have stricter breach notification requirements than in other sectors. Certain types of breaches (i.e., ransomware attacks) have to be reported even if it cannot be established data has been compromised. The increasing number of recent ransomware attacks may have influenced the healthcare data breach statistics.

Why has the average HIPAA penalty decreased since 2018 despite increases in the number of breaches and median breach size?

The average HIPAA penalty has decreased since 2018 despite increases in the number of breaches and median breach size because in recent years the Office for Civil Rights (OCR) has been running a right of access initiative to clamp down on providers who fail to provide patients with access to their PHI within the thirty days allowed.

Penalties for right of access failures are less than for high-volume data breaches, and this has resulted in a decrease in the average HIPAA penalty in recent years. However, while the average HIPAA penalty issued by OCR has decreased, penalties issued by State Attorneys General have remained constant, while it is too early to find trends in fines issued by the FTC.

If a healthcare professional discloses PHI without authorization, is this included in the healthcare data breach statistics?

If a healthcare professional discloses PHI without authorization, the disclosure is unlikely to appear in the healthcare data breach statistics because the statistics are compiled from breaches involving 500 or more records. Therefore, individual unauthorized disclosures of PHI are not included in the figures. However, if the unauthorized disclosure is investigated by OCR and found to be attributable to willful neglect, any subsequent fines will be included in the settlement statistics.

How can healthcare organizations mitigate data breaches?

Healthcare organizations can mitigate data breaches using various methods. The most effective is to encrypt protected health information to render it unusable, unreadable, or indecipherable in the event of a data breach attack. This will ensure data is not compromised and the attack will not have to be reported to the Office for Civil Rights.

Other steps include implementing two-factor authentication on privileged accounts to mitigate the consequences of credential theft, running checks on all storage volumes (cloud and on-premises) to ensure appropriate permissions are applied, checking network connections for unauthorized open ports, and eliminating Shadow IT environments developed as workarounds.

How are successful phishing attacks recorded in the HIPAA breach reports?

Successful phishing attacks are recorded in the HIPAA breach reports as Hacking/IT Incidents. However, as other cybersecurity incidents such as ransomware attacks and events attributable to malware are also categorized as Hacking/IT Incidents, it is not possible to determine how many successful phishing attacks there have been affecting more than 500 individuals.

Why doesn’t HHS fine every covered organization when a HIPAA data breach occurs?

HHS doesn’t fine every covered organization when a HIPAA data breach occurs because not all data breaches are attributable to HIPAA violations. For example, successful ransomware attacks are notifiable events even when no PHI is disclosed and when systems can be quickly restored from backups because, for a period of time, PHI was unavailable.

Why is the number of HIPAA breaches increasing despite more awareness about HIPAA compliance?

The number of HIPAA breaches is increasing despite more awareness about HIPAA compliance due to the increasing digitalization of healthcare data and the increasing sophistication of cyberattacks. While there is an argument that more awareness about HIPAA compliance is having an impact on the lower number of HIPAA breaches attributable to lost or stolen drives and devices, there is a counterargument that, because of the increase in cloud computing, fewer covered organizations are transporting unencrypted PHI on drives and devices.

How can HIPAA covered entities better secure their supply chains to prevent data breaches attributable to business associates?

HIPAA covered entities can better secure their supply chains to prevent data breaches attributable to business associates by conducting more thorough due diligence on each business associate. Many covered entities rely on “good faith assurances” rather than investigating the measures each business associate has in place to prevent data breaches, the training provided to business associate workforces, and the security of communication channels used to transmit PHI.

What is the difference between a healthcare data breach and a HIPAA data breach?

The difference between a healthcare data breach and a HIPAA data breach is that a healthcare data breach is one in which healthcare data is accessed without authorization from a healthcare provider (who may or may not be a HIPAA covered entity or business associate), while a HIPAA data breach is a breach of any Protected Health Information (which can include financial information) from any covered health plan, health care clearinghouse, or healthcare provider, or any business associate providing a service for or on behalf of a covered entity.

Therefore, not only is it the nature of the data that distinguishes a healthcare data breach from a HIPAA data breach (i.e., healthcare data vs healthcare, payment, and other data with protected status), but also the status of the organization where data was accessed without authorization (i.e., covered or non-covered healthcare provider vs HIPAA covered entity or business associate). The difference may be subtle, but it can impact the breach notification requirements, the regulatory authority, and the penalty for a data breach.